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树莓派配置 USB 无线网卡

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树莓派配置 USB 无线网卡来上网的过程。

本人使用的USB无线网卡型号:EP-N8508GS(树莓派专用型号)

一、检查 USB 无线网卡是否已经正确识别

将无线 USB 网卡插入树莓派后启动树莓派,比较不建议热插拔,因为插入的一瞬间会有比较高的电流,如果电源输出不够可能导致树莓派重启。
进入 shell 界面后输入命令 lsusb
如果树莓派已经正常识别,在显示类似于如下的信息中可以看到你的USB无线网卡设备 ID 和芯片型号:

Bus 001 Device 004: ID 0bda:8176 Realtek Semiconductor Corp. RTL8188CUS 802.11n WLAN Adapter
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 0424:ec00 Standard Microsystems Corp. SMSC9512/9514 Fast Ethernet Adapter
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 0424:9514 Standard Microsystems Corp. 
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

如上,我的 pi 已经识别 RTL8188CUS 802.11n WLAN Adapter
再使用 iwconfig 命令确认一下:

wlan0     unassociated  Nickname:"<WIFI@REALTEK>"
          Mode:Managed  Frequency=2.412 GHz  Access Point: Not-Associated   
          Sensitivity:0/0  
          Retry:off   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
          Power Management:off
          Link Quality:0  Signal level:0  Noise level:0
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0   Missed beacon:0
lo        no wireless extensions.
eth0      no wireless extensions.

如果出现了 wlan0,那说明网卡已经正常工作了,如果这里的显示不正常,请安装连接 wifi 必要的包。

sudo apt-get install wireless-tools wpasupplicant firmware-realtek

二、设置 WIFI

输入如下命令可以搜索附近所有可连接的 WIFI AP:

sudo iwlist wlan0 scan

这边搜到了十几个 wifi 热点,下图是我自己家的:

Cell 09 - Address: 10:0D:7F:45:9E:D9
          ESSID:"OpenWrt_2.4G"
          Protocol:IEEE 802.11bgn
          Mode:Master
          Frequency:2.462 GHz (Channel 11)
          Encryption key:on
          Bit Rates:144 Mb/s
          Extra:wpa_ie=dd1a0050f20101000050f20202000050f2040050f20201000050f202
          IE: WPA Version 1
              Group Cipher : TKIP
              Pairwise Ciphers (2) : CCMP TKIP
              Authentication Suites (1) : PSK
          Extra:rsn_ie=30180100000fac020200000fac04000fac020100000fac020c00
          IE: IEEE 802.11i/WPA2 Version 1
              Group Cipher : TKIP
              Pairwise Ciphers (2) : CCMP TKIP
              Authentication Suites (1) : PSK
          Quality=36/100  Signal level=66/100 

使用如下命令获得 wifi 设置:

wpa_passphrase SSID 名称 密码

回显如下:

network={
        ssid="OpenWrt_2.4G"
        #psk=" 密码 "
        psk=ff5e84f34e6f496acff05d1a97271508bb4405d5d07864c2dc321941e427f778
}

复制这段回显并保存到自己的配置文件中:

sudo nano /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant . conf

然后配置/etc/network/interfaces

sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces

配置 自动获得 IP 地址,配置内容如下:

allow-hotplug wlan0
auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp  
pre-up wpa_supplicant -B w -D wext -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf 
post-down killall -q wpa_supplicant

连接网络:

sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart
sudo ifup wlan0

关闭网络:

sudo ifdown wlan0

三、最后使用命令 iwconfig 和 ifconfig 验证查看连接速度

iwconfig信息:

wlan0     IEEE 802.11bgn  ESSID:"OpenWrt_2.4G"  Nickname:"<WIFI@REALTEK>"
          Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.462 GHz  Access Point: 10:0D:7F:45:9E:D9   
          Bit Rate:65 Mb/s   Sensitivity:0/0  
          Retry:off   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
          Power Management:off
          Link Quality=100/100  Signal level=71/100  Noise level=0/100
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0   Missed beacon:0
lo        no wireless extensions.
eth0      no wireless extensions.

查看 ifconfig 信息:

wlan0     Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr e8:4e:06:20:03:7c  
          inet addr:192.168.0.206  Bcast:192.168.0.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
          inet6 addr: fd1a:b6c5:65ca:0:d10a:30ca:da70:e8c7/64 Scope:Global
          inet6 addr: fd1a:b6c5:65ca::c3b/128 Scope:Global
          inet6 addr: fe80::733a:6f84:a823:d26a/64 Scope:Link
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:440 errors:0 dropped:27 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:90 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
          RX bytes:81492 (79.5 KiB)  TX bytes:17685 (17.2 KiB)

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